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Adequacy study for the firefighting system to satisfy the standard of fire protection to meet the industrial standards for safe operation. Firefighting adequacy includes the study of fire hydrant, sprinkler/spray, foam system, hydraulic study for the fire water network. All the firefighting system will be checked & stabilized based on the international standards and guidelines to ensure providing the safe operation in any industry.

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Study Methodology

The adequacy check for existing or proposed firefighting system shall be carried out based on the international standards like Shell DEP, NFPA, BIS, IS and client requirements. The study comprises the following under firefighting adequacy:

  • Fire water demand calculation, requirement & its storage
  • Hydraulic study for the entire fire water network
  • Assessment of existing fire protection system
  • Fire water demand calculation, requirement & its storage
  • Hydraulic study for the entire fire water network
  • Checking of fire water spray / sprinkler, hydrant, monitor, hose reel requirement
  • Checking and recommendation for deluge system
  • Potable & mobile firefighting equipment requirements
  • Foam/water monitor system
  • Automatic detection & fire suppression system study

Guidelines & General Practices

  • The fixed water spray system shall be provided for all the hydrocarbon tanks irrespective of diameter
  • Water flow calculated for exposure protection for all the tanks falling within a radius of (R+30) m from the center of the tank on fire.
  • For atmospheric storage tanks containing class B products (fixed roof or floating roof) of diameter larger than 30 m shall be provided with fixed water spray system
  • For atmospheric storage tanks containing class B products (fixed roof or floating roof) of diameter larger than 30 m shall be provided with fixed water spray system
  • Hydrants or water monitors shall be located keeping in view the fire hazards at different sections of premises to give most effective coverage.
  • At hazardous locations, number of hydrants shall be based on one hydrant or water monitor for every 30 m of external perimeter of process units, storage tank areas, hydrocarbon pumping station/ house, blending station, utilities etc.
  • The fire water network shall be laid in closed loops as far as possible to ensure multi-directional flow in the system.
  • Isolation valves shall be provided in the network to enable isolation of any section of the network without affecting the flow in the rest.

The purpose of the EERA(Emergency Evacuation Rescue Analysis) study is to ensure that evacuation means (e.g. escape routes, muster areas, primary, secondary and tertiary means of evacuation) can be safely used and that all personnel within the platform can be evacuated in the event of a major accident hazards (MAHs). The hazards will be determined by reviewing the existing MAH assessments i.e. the Fire Risk Analyses, the Explosion Risk Analysis and the toxic and flammable gas dispersion results provided within the Quantitative Risk Analyses. Specific calculations shall be performed in this study to determine the smoke impairment frequencies.

The escape, evacuation and rescue analysis (EERA) makes a distinction between two different types of calculations performed independently which are:

  • The calculation of escape and evacuation time considering worst case workers’ locations
  • The assessment of impairment frequencies of the various EER facilities (muster areas, life rafts…)

Escape and Evacuation time prediction

The possible development of events prior to emergency evacuation of an installation is difficult to predict. In order to simplify the range of possibilities, events are normally assumed to follow a generic EER sequence. In order to assess evacuation and escape times, assumptions considered for each step of the sequence shall be presented in the assumption register. This represents a sequence applying to a typical (i.e. generic) installation. The required time to evacuate the installation should be regarded as a theoretical time estimate, as the estimated time is based on generic values and expert judgment.

In reality, these sequences only apply as long as the evacuation remains orderly. If the initiating incident is severe, the evacuation may be disrupted as the evacuation means are impaired or the personnel are not able to reach the mustering station. The following are the sequence considered for estimating the time.

  • Alarm and delay time to start mustering
  • Escape to muster area
  • Roll-call and don lifejackets / survival suits
  • Evacuation / escape to the sea
  • Rescue / Recovery to a place of safety
  • Total escape and evacuation time
  • Critical aspects in escape and evacuation time calculations

Impairment of EER facilities

The impairment of EER facilities i.e. muster areas, primary, secondary and tertiary means of evacuation and the escape routes are studied to ensure that they can be safely used and that all personnel within the platform can be evacuated in the event of a major accident hazards (MAHs). Their impairment is assessed with regards to the hazards determined by the existing MAH assessments and the toxic and flammable gas dispersion results provided within the Quantitative Risk Analyses. Consequences of all types of hazardous outcomes are thus re-used from other reports except the smoke dispersion which is specifically calculated for the EERA study. The main assumptions related to the impairment of the EER facilities are the thresholds selected to represent impairment for radiations, smoke, overpressures, flammable and toxic gas concentration. In some cases, these thresholds represent a structural impairment of the EER means, and in some other cases, they represent a temporary unavailability of EER means. They also differ between the different EER facilities depending on their vulnerability to the various hazardous outcomes.

1. Employee participation

OSHA requires employee participation to be followed as written, so employers should create formal plans. It is mandatory that employees - including operation and maintenance be involved in every aspect of the PSM programs. They must also participate in PSM related issue discussion.

2. Process safety information

According to OSHA’s PSM mandates, “The employer shall complete a compilation of written process safety information before conducting any process safety hazard analysis required by the standard.” In other words, all workers should be able to access and understand the technical data regarding the HHC-related risks they face on the job.

3. Process hazard analysis (PHA)

One of the most technical elements of PSM, Process Hazard Analysis requires that engineers and maintenance leaders analyze the consequences of safety failures. These analyses must be conducted in teams, and OSHA requires that each team must include one person who is “knowledgeable in the specific process hazard methodology being used.”

4. Operating procedures

There are plenty of potential chemical hazards following turnarounds and emergency shutdowns, which need to be regularly assessed and companies should have plans to keep everyone safe.

5. Training

Workers involved in processes with hazardous chemicals need to be trained in an efficient and competent manner from a reliable source and also be well aware of safety procedures to be followed. The training should be a well-documented one.

6. Contractors

All employees and contractors must be well informed with the risk they are exposed to in the workplace. They must be well trained and aware of all precaution and measures to be taken.

7. Pre-startup safety review

OSHA expects employers to perform pre-startup safety reviews for both new and modified facilities. This rule applies even if the procedural changes only affect a single component or process.

8. Mechanical integrity

  • Periodic, documented inspections are required for several systems, including:
  • Pressure vessels
  • Storage tanks
  • Piping systems
  • Ventilation systems

The employers or contractors conducting these inspections must not only be officially trained, their testing procedures must follow “recognized and generally accepted good engineering practices,” according to OSHA.

9. Hot Work permit

The employee must possess permit when exposed to high heat environment and working with heat. Training must be provided and state these documents as when and required.

10. Management of Change

In the process safety management standard, change includes all modifications to equipment, procedures, raw materials, and processing conditions other than "replacement in kind." If the operator finds any change in the operating parameters, a review and approval by a written management of change procedure to be followed.

11. Incident investigation

This is usually done to avoid mishaps from recurring by learning from past experiences. The incidents OSHA expects employers to recognize and to investigate are the types of events that resulted in or could reasonably have resulted in a catastrophic release. These events are sometimes referred to as "near misses," meaning that a serious consequence did not occur, but could have happened.

12. Emergency planning and response

Emergency preparedness need to be inculcated in all employers and always be alert of the sudden mishap which can lead to major accidents.

13. Compliance audits

An audit is a technique to gather all information to verify compliance with standards. It is always beneficial to retain the recent audit reports for ready reference.

14. Trade secrets

To enhance worker safety and safe working environment, the “trade secrets” helps employees know the work environment and the hazards they will be exposed to.

The intent of PSM is to ensure that we perform our processes in a manner that is consistent with safety in all operations, engineering, and maintenance tasks that are conducted involving HHCs.

The purpose of Fire and safety auditing is to carry out a systematic, critical study on all potential fire hazards by identifying potential fire, explosion hazards and risks in premises and suggest appropriate preventive measures. They also makes sure the companies fully satisfy the legal requirements required by them.

 The main benefits of fire safety audits are as follows:

  • All the staffs will be aware of the safety procedures.
  • People working in high hazardous conditions can be identified.
  • Existing control measures can be evaluated.
  • Determine whether new control measures are necessary.
  • Up keeping and testing of all fire safety equipment and precautions

Methodology

The basic methodology for fire safety auditing is as follows.

  1. Site visit by the auditing team.
  2. All The layout, plans, of the premise is studied.
  3. Facility’s firefighting equipments are evaluated.
  4. The training and awareness of the employees evaluated.
  5. Recommendations and corrective actions needed are discussed.
  6. If necessary, follow-up actions are taken by the team.

Standards:

  • National Building Code (NBC) of India 2016
  • IS 8758:1993
  • The Factories Act,
  • The Petroleum Act
  • THE CEA Regulation
  •  IS-14489-1998 code on occupational Safety and Health Audit.
  • OSID standards

A 'bow-tie' is a graphical representation of the pathways from the causes of an event or risk to its consequences. The diagram is shaped like a bow-tie, creating a clear differentiation between reactive risk management and proactive

Technical Challenge:

It is not enough to simply identify risks they must also be managed, analysed, evaluated, monitored, and communicated to be managed: analyzed, evaluated, monitored and communicated. Bow-Tie is a scenario-based risk management tool which helps PSM to accomplish these tasks and to answer questions like: “Where we are most exposed to risk?”, “are we equipped with enough (or too many!) Safety measures in place?”, “are our safety measures actually performing the way we have in view?” This is a risk assessment method. The bow-tie method helps to analyze and communicate how high-risk scenarios develop.

What are the benefits of conducting Bow-Tie Analysis?

The benefits of the Bow-Tie analysis include, but not limited to:

  • Provides a structure to analyze a hazard systematically.
  • Helps make a decision to check the current level of control is sufficient (or, for those who are familiar with the concept, whether risks are As Low as Reasonably Practicable or ALARP).
  • Helps to identify where and how investing resources would have the greatest impact.
  • Increases risk communication and awareness.

When HAZID should be done?

Bowties are diagrams that provide a qualitative visual diagram to increase understanding of a risk. If you’re looking for a quick scan of all your risks, a HAZID might be more suitable. If you’re looking for a purely quantitative model, QRA might be more suited. Bowtie is extremely useful in most other risk assessment areas. It’s meant to structure a brainstorm session with multiple disciplines and get a result that everyone can understand without going through a thick report. If this sounds like something you’re looking for, keep reading.

Approach / Methodology

The bow-tie diagram helps you to gain an insight in complex processes through oversight. This objective is always leads ahead of others and can therefore overrule the guidelines if necessary. The objective to keep an understandable diagram always over weighs the intention to be analytically correct.

There are eight basic steps in building a bowtie diagram. They are as follows:

  • Identify hazard: - The first step in managing risks is to identify what their sources are.
  • Identify top event:-When we know what is potentially hazardous, we need to know how we could lose control over it.
  • Identify threats: - Next we need to consider the scenarios or events which could directly cause the occurrence of the top event.
  • Evaluate consequences:-After the top event occurs, subsequent scenarios or events are now possible. These consequences can lead to losses and damage.
  • Identify preventive barriers:- The next step is to identify the barriers which should prevent the threats from reaching or causing the top event. These are preventative barriers.
  • Identify recovery barriers:-Barriers on the right side try to recover from the occurrence of the top event. These barriers should prevent or alleviate the consequences and/or the resulting losses and destruction.
  • Identify escalation factors: - The next step is to identify the specific situations or conditions under which the barriers are less or not effective.
  • Identify escalation factor barriers:-The last step is to look at what barriers you have to prevent or manage these escalation factors.

Now with the escalation factors in place, our complete diagram is as follows:

Environmental Impact Identification (ENVID) is to identify potential environmental problems ensuing from a planned development / scope and acceptable practice measures to make sure that throughout the generation of the event it ends up in negligible damage to the environment.

Why

1. To identify the potential environmental risks involved within the proposed scope.
2. To assess the environmental effects and it impacts
3. In the within the understanding of the causes, consequences and significance of environmental impacts.
4. To identify effective management & mitigation to eliminate / cut back impact from environmental aspects.

Methodology

the ENVID guidewords are consistently applied to each of the study nodes to identify hazards that have the potential to give rise to safety, health or environmental consequences of concern.

The proposed prevention, control and associated mitigation measures were explored for every hazard that has the potential to grant rise to consequences of concern. Alternative measures were planned wherever the team were of the opinion that the proposed prevention, control or mitigation measures don't seem to be enough to reduce the associated risks to as low as is reasonably practicable levels.

The proposed project will be mentioned comprehensively during the ENVID Workshop with the following objectives:

Confirm or reject each entry as a possible environmental/occupational health issue.
• Add environmental problems based on expert judgment and knowledge by the multi-disciplinary team of workshop attendants.
• Discuss required/planned mitigation measures to reduce potential environmental impacts.
• Agree on significance (in terms of consequence and duration) of every residual impact (i.e. impact following the implementation of mitigation measures).

Following the workshops, ENVID reports will be ready. Every report can list the key environmental and occupational health impacts related to the activities during the implementation of the proposed project.

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